Many believe that brain surgery is a relatively modern phenomenon…

But the archaeological record shows that humans have been cracking open one another’s heads for thousands of years through the practice of trepanation! 🧠

According to a new study, Inca surgeons in ancient Peru commonly and successfully removed small portions of patients’ skulls to treat head injuries.

The healers who performed the surgeries used scraping tools and hand drills with differing degrees of success.

📷 Museum of Anthropology, Archaeology, and History. 📍Lima, Peru🇵🇪

Around the ancient Inca capital of Cuzco, remains dating back to A.D. 1000 show that surgical techniques were standardized and perfected over time.

Inca Skull Surgeons Had Better Success Rates Than American Civil War  Doctors | Smart News| Smithsonian Magazine

This procedure is still done after head injuries when bleeding inside the skull puts pressure on the brain. Drill a hole, blood comes out, pressure comes back down, the brain works well again. Very cool to know how long people have been helping each other like that. Sometimes I wonder how they had the nerve to do this surgery the 1st time

Russian archaeologists unearth the skull of a 5,000 year old man who  underwent ancient brain surgery | Daily Mail Online